The Palatinate or German Pfalz was subject to invasion by the armies of Britain, France, and Germany. As well as the devastating effects of war, the Palatines were subjected to the winter of 1708 and 1709, the harshest in 100 years.
The scene was set for a mass migration. At the invitation of Queen Anne in the spring of 1709, about 7 000 harassed Palatines sailed down the Rhine to Rotterdam. From there, about 3000 were dispatched to America, either directly or via England, under the auspices of William Penn. The remaining 4 000 were sent via England to Ireland to strengthen the protestant interest.
Palatine Immigrants to New York
In 1710, three large groups of Palatines sailed from London. The first went to Ireland, the second to Carolina and the third to New York with the new Governor, Robert Hunter. There were 3 000 Palatines on 10 ships that sailed for New York and approximately 470 died on the voyage or shortly after their arrival.
Pennsylvania Palatine Ancestors
Over the next 100 years, impoverished Palatines fled from Germany to America - many arriving in Pennsylvania. Olive Tree Genealogy has a Pennsylvania German Pioneers Project which includes the list of ships carrying Palatines from Germany to Philadelphia from 1727 to 1808 as well as names of passengers, Oaths of Allegiance and Ships Passenger Lists.
I have many Palatine ancestors who came to New York in 1709 and 1710. If you are looking for your Palatine immigrants, here are some links that may be helpful
Palatine Ships Lists to New York
Palatine Child Apprentices 1710-1714
Palatine Ships to Pennsylvania 1727-1808
Palatine Denizations (Naturalizations) 1708
These are two books you should have in your Library for Palatine research
* The Palatine Families of New York: A Study of the German Immigrants Who Arrived in Colonial New York in 1710 by Henry Z. Jones, Jr.
More Palatine Families : Some Immigrants to the Middle Colonies 1717-1776 and Their European Origins Plus New Discoveries on German Families Who arriv by Henry Z. Jones, Jr.
Here are my Palatine ancestral families:
BELLINGER a Palatine German pioneer family to New York
DECKMANN aka DEGMAN a Palatine German pioneer family to New York
WARNER aka WERNER a Palatine German pioneer family to New York
HOMMEL a Palatine German pioneer family to New York
SCHNEIDER aka SNIDER a Palatine German pioneer family to New York
KEHL a Palatine German pioneer family to New York
MERCKEL aka MERKLEY aka MARICAL a Palatine German pioneer family to New York
MULLER a Palatine German pioneer family to New York
WUEST aka WUST a Palatine German pioneer family to New York